无人船碰撞责任问题与应对建议

2020-07-10 07:00:26 - admin

  摘 要: 为明确无人船的“无人”特征对无人船碰撞相关责任的影响, 对船员的避碰责任、船舶间的避让责任以及碰撞后的责任等问题进行研究。结论表明:岸基操控人员与船员在空间位置和配员数量方面的差异, 使得需要对良好船艺的评价标准作出相应的改变;若将无人船一刀切地识别为失去控制的船舶或操纵能力受限制的船舶, 则不能满足无人船的发展需要;由于无人船技术因素的介入, 无人船发生碰撞后可能涉及的侵权责任、救助责任或刑事责任在主体、管辖等方面将面临不同程度的变化。为应对无人船碰撞相关责任问题, 建议从明确无人船和岸基操控人员的法律地位、调整国际海事条约的规定、建立针对无人船的约束机制等方面入手。

  关键词: 无人船; 避碰责任; 救助责任; 侵权责任; 刑事责任;

  Abstract: To clarify impacts of the“unmanned”feature about unmanned ships on related responsibilities of unmanned ship collision, some issues on the collision avoidance responsibilities of seafarers, the collision avoidance responsibilities between ships and the responsibilities after collision are studied. The conclusions are as follows: the difference in the space location and the number between shore-based operators and seafarers makes it necessary to make corresponding changes to evaluation criteria of good seamanship; the indiscriminate assumption of recognizing unmanned ships as out-of-control ships or ships with limited maneuverability can not meet the development needs of unmanned ships; because of the intervention of the technical factors of unmanned ships, the tort liability, assistance responsibility or criminal responsibility that may be involved after unmanned ship collision face different degrees of change in subject, jurisdiction, etc. For the purpose of dealing with related responsibility issues on unmanned ship collision, it is suggested to clarify the legal status of unmanned ships and shore-based operators, adjust international maritime treaties, and establish constraint mechanism for unmanned ships.

  Keyword: unmanned ship; collision avoidance responsibility; assistance responsibility; tort liability; criminal responsibility;

  0、 引言

  人工智能的迅速发展正在深刻影响着人类社会生活。目前, 以AlphaGo围棋人工智能程序、Google无人驾驶汽车、“微软小冰”虚拟伴侣机器人等为代表的人工智能技术的应用实践, 对包括伦理、道德、法律等各方面人类社会的传统认知形成了不小的挑战。人工智能技术在船舶驾驶和货物管理方面的运用, 将使船舶不再配备船员, 进而取消常规船必需的船员生活舱室、医疗设施、救生设备、食物、饮用水等, 以达到节省运营成本、提高运输效率的效果。然而, 无人船技术的应用势必会引起海商海事法律体系现有格局的剧烈变化。

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